The 2015 IGSHPA Technical Conference and Expo - Kansas City, MO| OCT 7 - 8 proceedings are posted below. (Please note that all
speakers did not provide us with copies of their presentations. Those
received are listed below.)
A full list and access to all of past conference proceedings are available in the members only section (restricted area).
You must be a member to be able to access the members only section. If you attended one of our conferences, the proceedings of
that conference are made available to you from our office. Please call 800-626-4747.
Presentations are in Adobe Acrobat (pdf) format. If you need Adobe Reader download here.
Guillermo A. Narsilio. Ph.D.,
Professor of Geotechnical Engineering; Department of Infrastructure Engineering Melbourne School of Engineering.
The University of Melbourne is collecting data on the performance of GSHP systems for a range of conditions encountered in Victoria, Australia, with a particular emphasis on geotechnical or below ground performance. The team of about 10 researchers, with significant funding from several sources, has extensively instrumented about 25 new and retrofit structures. Analysis of the data with several new modeling techniques is providing a strong basis for significant savings to be made on ground installation costs. The paper will present some details of the installations, typical results and discuss their implications on more cost effective design and construction.
Andy Howley, CGD
Ground Source Ltd.
Ground Source Energy Systems (GSES) in London (UK) property is a nightmare of space limitation, planning and building regulations and exacting clients.
Open-loop GSES are an ideal solution from a delivery and geological perspective but historically they have required space for a minimum of two boreholes which in cities is often impossible.
Following a brief from an internationally renowned, high fashion brand, requiring alternative energy solutions to complement their values, GSC Ltd. designed and built a single borehole open-loop energy system using packers.
This innovative solution could provide an invaluable way forward for GSES systems across cities throughout the world.
Meline Engineering Corp.
From the Federal Government to our local schools, ZNE is no longer a ‘nice to have’ for new building construction projects. It is becoming a requirement in California. In 2008 the California Public Utilities Commission rolled out its “Big Bold” Energy Efficiency Strategies that included goals for all new residential construction to be ZNE by 2020 and for all new commercial construction to be ZNE by 2030. Projects featuring geothermal heat pumps and earlier adopters of this approach to new construction will be presented.
Mark Metzner & Muktha Tumkur
CSA Group, Inc
CSA Standards is a leading American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and Standards Council of Canada (SCC) accredited developer of standards, codes, guidelines and personnel certification programs. We have embarked on the development of a bi-national standard, BSR*/CSA C448-201X, Design and Installation of Earth Energy Systems with American and Canadian technical committee members. These stakeholders identified the need for standardization through a neutral third party accredited process for the design and installation of geothermal heat pump systems as a priority. We will be presenting on the status of the project that will harmonize the differences between existing resources, simplify referencing in regulations and contracts, incorporate the latest advancements, clarify compliance using standards language, and provide credibility through an accredited neutral standards development process.
ISCO Industries, Inc.
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) provided fast growth for the renewable and energy-efficiency markets in the United States, but six years later the broader United States economy is sluggish and it’s critical to analyze how the geothermal heating and cooling industry can gain market share within the broader HVAC industry.
During this presentation we will look at historical data via the Plastics Pipe Institute and other macro-level indicators to ascertain where the geothermal market has been and where it is currently heading. Key questions will be posed:
- What will the geothermal heating and cooling market look like in 2025?
- What can we do now to affect positive change?
- What are the technological advances needed to gain additional market share within the HVAC sector?
- What are the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to our industry?
- How do we truly initiate a privately financed geothermal market in the United States?
The three legs to the ZNE stool are, a high performance building, high efficiency HVAC, and solar PV. Geo is the most efficient HVAC, and with best practice can be even more efficient.
The economics looks at avoided cost. The high performance building reduces loads by as much as 70%, the most efficient geothermal system design reduces energy use by as much as 50%, which means the PV needed will be 15% the size it could have been if the building and HVAC system were not optimized to provide maximum energy efficiency.
Is cheaper for the family’s budget than a comparable new home. Local energy costs and construction costs determine how much the bonus is.
Existing construction is can be made ZNE by starting with a deep energy retrofit. This is more expensive than for new construction, but offers more value. Comfort and indoor air quality improvements alone can make a DER valuable enough to justify the capital expenditure.
ZNE buildings are financially positive, they just require additional capital investment to most family’s one major long term investment, their home. The return on investment in ZNE is high, and guaranteed to increase every year. On top of that, they dramatically reduce the family’s carbon footprint. This alone provides all the value many need to make the investment.
Trison Construction Inc.
This presentation will provide a factual comparison of actual recommended preventative maintenance and annual maintenance activities for Closed Loop Geothermal Heat Pump (CLGHP) systems as compared to conventional HVAC systems, not estimated savings percentages. The program will first define portions of any HVAC system that are technology blind (controls, IAQ related requirements, ductwork, filters, etc.). The program will then compare conventional residential system (electric/fossil fuel boilers, electric/fossil fuel furnaces/ac systems, and air source heat pumps) preventative maintenance and annual maintenance recommendations to CLGHP recommendations. Commercially, the same type of comparisons will be made for conventional DX systems, electric/fossil fuel furnaces, air/water cooled chillers, and electric/fossil fuel boilers. The results will clearly illustrate why CLGHP systems justifiably claim saving a very significant percentage of maintenance cost over the life of the system when compared to conventional HVAC systems.
Geo-Flo Products, Corporation
This presentation will provide an overview of new variable speed pumping solutions, and compare savings as well as application design flexibility. Improved efficiency, pump selection, and ground loop design can have a significant impact on geothermal system COP/EER. As geothermal heat pump efficiencies increase, pumping efficiency is an even more important consideration when designing systems.
The IKEA Kansas City store is the 2nd facility in the United States the big box retailer operates to employ GSHP space conditioning. This 359,000 ft² facility utilizes a vertical closed loop ground heat exchanger of 108,000 linear feet of borehole servicing packaged water-air, roof-top and water-water extended range heat pumps. This presentation will describe design considerations and strategies; ground heat exchanger design considerations; post installation functional performance testing to optimize the operation of the mechanical system; and differences between the Kansas City GSHP installation and the IKEA store in Denver.
Jeffrey D. Spitler, PhD, PE
Oklahoma State University
When the ASHRAE Headquarters building in Atlanta was renovated in 2008, three state of the art systems - a ground source heat pump (GSHP) system, a variable refrigerant flow (VRF) system and a dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) were installed. The building was instrumented with over a 1000 sensors, creating a living laboratory that can be used to study the performance of the building and the systems. In this seminar presentation, we will compare the performance of the GSHP and VRF systems.
Stephen Hamstra, P.E., CGD, LEED AP
How can we grow our industry without performance feedback? GSHP systems depend upon actual performance that consistently matches in-situ tests and our designs. Can we measure on-going soil properties and adjust how our designs should be shaped by reality? Should we combine or separate borefields for best performance? Come and see what real performance analytics are revealing!
Kelvin Self, Ph.D.
Charles Machine Works/Ditch Witch
HDD drilling contractors have voiced concern about the cost and problems associated with disposing of mud produced during horizontal pipe installations such as geothermal. This material is voluminous and often the driller is required to remove the material from the job. Drilling contractors often find it difficult to secure low cost disposal options.
This presentation will emphasize the results from a 3 year joint comprehensive research project between Ditch Witch® and Oklahoma State University. Results include survey information and mud analysis from jobsites across the country, along with results from field studies on mud application to turf grass and construction sites. This will include a technical publication covering the overall research project.
CLD Industries, LLC &
Real-Time Remote Monitoring - Critical to Customer satisfaction Continued adoption of ground source Heat pump technology and Customer acceptance require assurances that the GSHP Service Industry is mature, that systems operate optimally, and systems perform based on Customers’ expectations. Cost effective real-time remote monitoring and tracking of GSHPs performance indicators provide multiple advantages to customers, Installers, manufacturers and Contractors providing continual verification of system health and operation. Contractors benefit from remote diagnosis of system performance to proactively take corrective action. Contractors can increase their catchment area offering their clients lower cost service contracts with confidence they can offer 24x7 support. Manufacturers are able to analyze field operational data to assist in improving system design.
Western Farmers Electric Coop. &
Trey Austin Geo Energy Services LLC
This tract will be a quick review of last year’s presentation but primarily focused on the ongoing “Evolution” of this G&T’s Geothermal Program. The presentation will address the following:
- New data acquired demonstrating the value Geo brings to winter peak reduction.
- Introduction of a new strategic relationship recently formed to address several key issues identified in the last Geo Validation Survey that are impeding rapid and proactive deployment of Geo Systems across the WFEC footprint.
- Different approaches taken in OK & NM to meet unique regional differences.
- Examples of custom marketing plans being deployed at participating co-ops
Western Farmers Electric Coop.
- Committee education
- Equation to determine certificates
- New Mexico congressional process
When homeowners consider “unusual and expensive” technology, they quickly get past the feel-good “green-ness” and focus on the bottom-line. The challenge for GEO professionals is to convey—in non-technical terms—why GHPs are smart investments. Using the just-released book Geo Power as a training tool, attendees will gain insights into how to address customers' top concerns, including costs and payback time, which system will work best for them, and why heat pumps achieve super efficiencies. By putting this knowledge into the hands of homeowners, homebuilders, architects and lenders, geothermal heating / cooling will no longer be a mystery, and shoppers will become satisfied customers.
John Geyer, CGD
John Geyer & Associates, Inc.
In select soils, Horizontal Directional Drilling (“HDD”) of 500 to 1,000 foot loops remains a logistical and economic alternative to shorter vertical loops. Risks of changed drilling conditions and artesian flow are minimized or made manageable while thermal properties (e.g. conductivity and diffusivity) remain comparable or superior due to near-surface infiltration. A fourth West Coast project (Washington State) demonstrates retrofit construction during variable weather with ongoing surface occupancy. Work methods and in-situ testing extend the body of HDD experience since 2011 in California and Oregon.
Contract administration (CA), or quality assurance, is often lacking on many ground heat exchanger installations. CA should include a pre-construction meeting with the contractor team to improve communications and clarify design expectations, with subsequent site visits during construction through final pressure testing of the ground heat exchanger. Oversight CA provides a level of confidence for integrity of the loop installation; reduction or elimination of construction conflicts; and validating that the installation is compatible with design objectives.
Todd Giddings, Ph.D., P.G.
Todd Giddings & Associates, Inc. & Kevin McCray
The site geology and hydrogeology directly impact the installation cost and the performance of the ground heat exchanger (GHX) in a large-scale geothermal heat pump (GHP) system. These Guidelines explain how site hydrogeology can affect the performance of the GHX in a large-scale GHP system and how geoscience and geotechnical information can be used to increase the likelihood of successful GHX installations. These Guidelines present an approach to site assessment to help ensure the installation of an effective and long-term GHX installation that meets regulatory requirements, has an acceptable financial rate of return, prevents groundwater contamination, protects drinking water sources and public health, and protects the owners’ investment. This workshop will present how the site assessment process works, and will show the value of this Guidance by using actual job-site examples of various unanticipated hydrogeologic problems that impacted the installation and performance of the GHX.
Hotels are 24-7 operations with demanding standards for guest comfort and reliable mechanical systems. Geothermal systems serve a full range of lodging categories including four and five star hotels. The Charmant Hotel is a new boutique hotel in Lacrosse WI, which has been retrofitted from a 100 year old candy factory. Geothermal provides the guests with heating and cooling, domestic hot water, condensing for the refrigeration systems, snowmelt, and condenser water to water an adjacent city park. Geothermal was a key element in the design so that the owner could achieve historical tax credits.
Any dividing lines between the hot/direct-use geothermal and ground source heat pumps (GSHP’s) are closing rapidly. In Geo-Outlook’s 2nd (Summer 2015) Issue, an article entitled, “Cornell Researching GSHP Use for Verizon” showcases Cornell’s involvement in GSHP’s. There’s a lot more going on.
Consumers continue to be puzzled by geothermal, and that’s part of the reason that experts and contractors may “talk down” to them (consumers). Not many people will ever understand all of the ways to utilize the earth for renewable energy. It is however important that we do. Come and learn about the whole “Geothermal Picture”
A horizontally-bored ground heat exchanger may allow the system designer to have access to areas that would be otherwise unavailable with traditional installation methods. With horizontal-boring methods, a loopfield can be installed underneath parking lots, football fields, etc. without requiring much surface excavation.
From a design standpoint, there are many similarities between vertically- and horizontally-bored loop configurations, but there are also a few key differences that you must be aware of. This presentation will include a brief discussion of the similarities and differences between the two and will conclude with a software demonstration in LoopLink PRO.
Many people have conducted research on methods to improve the performance of vertical boreholes. They've considered pipe material, placement of pipe in the borehole, coaxial heat exchanger configurations rather than U-tubes, installation of more pipes in the borehole, improving the thermal conductivity of the pipe, etc. How does improving the heat exchanger improve the performance of the borehole. This paper discusses the benefits of reducing the borehole thermal resistance of the heat exchanger and how it improves the performance of the GHX.
Fast forward one year. Review of Distributed Energy Systems waste energy recovery using GSHP closed loop earth connections. What's progress is being made to calculate avoided generation in GSHP systems and how might we assign a renewable component to GX cooling? How can we take advantage of high system COP, part-load efficiencies with GSHP systems? Are there opportunities with commercial and residential systems with or without the proposed Clean Air Act 111d changes? How and why GSHPs have advantages over conventional systems.
Ewbank Geo Testing LLC
The Energy Information Agency notes that about sixty-five percent of an average residence and sixty percent of an average commercial building is for space conditioning, ventilation, and hot water. Ground heat exchangers can directly provide much of these needs, and with zero marginal energy costs. Utilities can increase income and cut pass though fuel costs using a new GHEX strategy.
Can the GHP market grow as fast or faster than the rooftop solar PV market? Yes. I will explain how and why. Third-party ownership (TPO) programs are the primary driver of the solar industry's dramatic growth rates. TPO could bring similar growth to the GHP industry. I will describe the "Wall Street" view of TPO programs and what the GHP industry must do in order to enable TPO for GHP.
Geo-Enterprises, Inc., one of the leading experts in Geothermal technology, has been selected the prime contractor for the geothermal district system on the construction of the new, 100% energy-neutral “Whisper Valley” residential subdivision of the city of Austin in Texas, USA.
The new-build development includes 7,500 residential units and 2 million square feet of office and retail space. Every building is being outfitted with geothermal and solar energy systems and Smart Home technology. Excess energy is automatically distributed to other buildings via an intelligent energy network. The project is the biggest of its kind in the USA.
The pilot project is costing a total of USD 2 billion, of which up to USD 200 million is coming from private German and American investors. “The most extensive clean energy transition isn’t happening in Europe, it is taking place right here in the United States. Opinions here have changed. Our investors have recognized the upside potentials, especially with this project,” explains Lorenz Reibling, Chairman and co-founder of Taurus Investment Holdings, LLC.
Austin is one of the most pioneering and dynamic cities in the United States. The city’s population is expanding rapidly and there are ambitious plans for new construction projects. On top of this, the city is one of the world’s most environmentally friendly, and plans to achieve full CO2 neutrality by 2050.
Geo-Enterprises will be working together with Rehau, Bosch and Ecosmart Solutions (the wholly owned subsidiary of Taurus Investment Holdings LLC) to offer a complete package that allows home owners to achieve zero-energy standards while also profiting as their homes increase in value and no longer have to worry about rising energy costs.
Professor Zhaohong Fang, Ph.D.
Shandong Jianzhu University, China
The Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) systems have been identified as one of the best sustainable energy technologies for space heating and cooling in buildings. Despite its late start the rapid growth of the GSHP applications in China has been boosted by the urgent need to reduce the severe air pollution caused mainly by the coal-fired boilers. The higher energy efficiency of the GSHP systems is also favored in comparison with conventional HVAC systems. The government advocacy and incentive have promoted its development as well. The applications of the GSHP technologies in China have evolved from booming of the Ground Water Heat Pump (GWHP) systems in 1990’s to the Ground-Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP) ones due to concerns over GWHP’s negative impacts on the groundwater resource and its limited availability in most areas. Differing from those in other regions of the world the applications of GCHP systems in China are predominated by large-scale projects, a single system of which often covers over 10000 m2 of building floor space. This has presented some unique challenges.
Dakota Geo Consultant Geothermal & Drilling Services & James Schenck
Thermal Battery Systems, Inc.
Dakota Geo Consultant LLC,Thermal Battery Systems Inc.and Energy Dynamics will be presenting on hybrid multi-source/sink applications of hydronic heat pumps. Unlike other approaches where solar thermal arrays or fluid coolers are added to standard GHEX configurations, these applications are designed as hybrids from the start. Presentation will cover concept application theory, discuss control and system monitoring technologies, as well as provide case study examples. Presentation of construction and installation of saturated sand cell battery with Q & A session to close. Educational display unit provided by Thermal Battery Systems Inc.
Stan Crisp, PE
AquaCal Application Engineer
When standard cupro-nickel water to water heat pumps are used for geothermal heating and chilling of swimming pools and spas, special steps should be taken to protect the heat pump’s load side heat exchanger.
Because water chemistry is critical to sustaining cupro-nickel heat exchanger life, intermediate heat exchangers are commonly used. Unfortunately this is a costly and time consuming endeavor, which also results in a reduction of overall system efficiency.
A cost effective alternative is the use of a geothermal water to water heat pump designed specifically for pool and spa applications and is equipped with a titanium heat exchanger.
KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Sweden has historically been a leading country on the manufacture, development and commercialization of geoenergy systems. With less than 10 million inhabitants, there are about 450 thousand GSHP installations with an estimated total installed capacity of 4,6 GW and 15,2 TWh/yr of supplied heat. A key factor has been the long R&D tradition that started already in the 80s and where a significant amount of the theory and methods used for ground loop system design was developed, e.g. the contribution by Prof. Johan Claesson on g-functions, Palne Mogensen on thermal response tests, and not least Prof. Eric Granryd on heat pumps. This pioneering tradition has continued during the last two decades and the amount of actors and interest in the technology development is increasing steadily. Other positive factors have been tax reduction schemes, national research programs, technical product competitions, and geoenergy&groundwater organizations such as AVANTI, a member driven entrepreneur association operating since 1973. Avanti, together with KTH, works continuously on strengthening the market grow through technology promotion, training and education, lobbying and research, and wills to promote the internationalization and reciprocal dissemination of know how through more research and a stronger contact with IGSHPA. This presentation goes through the Swedish geoenergy and groundwater market, Sweden’s major research contributions, the latest developments on g-functions, optimum borehole spacing, influence of groundwater flow and thermal response tests, and finally a presentation of the new chapter, IGSHPA Sweden.
Radiant Professional Alliance
Hydronic Radiant Low Temperature Heating and Cooling overview using GSHP as the Heating and Cooling Source. A primer course. There really isn’t anything “basic” about this course. Upon completion, attendees will have a much great understanding of the myriad of ways that radiant comfort can be applied, including radiant floors of all types, radiant walls, ceiling and panel radiators. They will understand the nuances, applications, and limitations of all hydronic components, including the different types of boilers and their applications, ground source heat pumps and their limitations, as well as compatibility between the different heat and cooling sources and methodologies for distribution. If the participants are interested in furthering their knowledge base, we will show them the resources the RPA has available to continue their hydronic/radiant heating/cooling education.
Don Penn Consulting Engineer/IEG Ltd.
Geothermal Heat Pump Projects are only as successful as the design and installation. With our experience in designing over 250 School Geothermal Heat Pump Systems; experiences and design techniques used will be openly discussed. Many engineers and designers view bore field piping design as a typical condenser water piping system; which is only partially correct. Too often issues with Geothermal Heat Pump systems is the inability to successfully purge and flush this array of piping we call a bore field. This presentation will review proper piping and bore field design considerations for successful purging and flushing of these systems.
It has been said that our current standard of a 2ft per second velocity could prove inadequate for flushing geothermal loop fields. Many engineers have acted on this suspicion and written specifications calling for velocities as high as 4 and 5 feet per second. This presentation will cover those concerns and provide some guidance for designing loop fields that can be flushed during installation and cleaned thoroughly in the event they are damaged in the future.
There are several important factors in design of successful ground source heat pump systems (GSHP). Among of them is the flow rate of the secondary fluid of the ground side. Flow rate can significantly effect on pressure drop and also on pump energy consumption. The energy consumption of the circulation pump is roughly proportional to the power three of the flow rate. Ground heat exchanger characteristics with turbulator (Turbo Collector ®) in a passive mode with smooth collector in different arrangement were studied. Results indicate that micro fins can contribute to better heat transfer; moreover pipes with the inner finned improve the performance of the system by lower borehole thermal resistance. This type of collectors can be applied for both cooling and heating mode meanwhile the flow rate can be set in a lower value compared to the smooth pipes.
University of Alabama
Building owners have experienced a variety of energy consumption and comfort levels with ground-source heat pumps in commercial and institutional buildings. This session will highlight characteristics of successful applications and discuss potential reasons for less than effectively systems. Design procedures that guide GSHP engineers toward more positive results will be demonstrated. The revised ASHRAE publication, Geothermal Heating and Cooling: Design of Ground Source Heat Pumps, and supplemental design tools will be highlighted. The revision takes advantage lessons learned since the original publication (1997), GSHP industry R&D projects, measured data from long term installations, and high production installation practices used by successful GSHP contractors.
Gulf Power Company/ Southern Company
“Stack up the best heating and cooling system options, GSHP’s are still the most efficient choice” Today’s air conditioning and heating equipment ratings make consumers think they’re buying the most efficiency system. What they don’t know is the typical seasonal ratings can really overstate an HVAC system’s efficiency when the unit runs the most – when it’s hot or cold outdoors. This presentation will compare air source vs ground efficiency based from manufacturer performance data that clearly shows the GSHP efficiency advantage.
Todd Giddings, Ph.D.
Todd Giddings & Associates, Inc.
The Stiff-Foam air-rotary drilling method uses significantly less air volume and creates a pseudo-wall-cake on the borehole wall to minimize the collapsing of the caving overburden and to decrease the erosion of the borehole wall. This innovative air-rotary drilling method can eliminate the need for temporary casing while you loop and grout the borehole, and can be an alternative to mud-rotary drilling.
Geothermal National & International Initiative
The presentation will address the renewed interest being taken in this technology, not only as an Energy Efficiency technology but as a renewable thermal asset. It will also focus on the dramatic impact this technology can have on, not only energy usage, but also on water conservation.
John Rhyner, PG, LEED AP
Sustainable Energy Group | P.W. Grosser Consulting
P.W. Grosser Consulting, Inc. investigated water-filled boreholes with annulus water pumping to “shave” load off a closed loop borefield for an academic building on Cornell University’s new technology campus in New York City. Annulus pumping can moderate loop temperatures thus entering water temperatures (EWTs) to the chillers and minimize reliance on a supplemental 200-ton cooling tower. A 72 hour thermal test was run on a test borehole to estimate summer “load shaving” potential and showed 34-68% of the hybrid load could be shave over five continuous days of peak operation. Equivalent energy consumption by annulus pumping would be only 25% of cooling tower operation.